Rosemary Lee (b. 1986) is an artist and media theorist focused on the history of visual technologies. Her work looks at how current developments in image production fit within larger narratives about art, vision, knowledge, and relations between humans and machines. Through a media-archaeological perspective, Lee seeks to develop a better understanding of how current methods and ideas about art and technology are influenced by those of the past.

Rosemary Lee completed her PhD at the IT-University of Copenhagen in 2020 with a thesis entitled “Machine Learning and Notions of the Image”. That research has been acknowledged with inclusion in the Leonardo Abstracts Service’s Top Thesis Abstracts of 2021 and was shortlisted for the German Informatics Society’s AI Newcomer Award in Art. Prior to her doctoral studies, Lee earned an MA with Distinction at the European Graduate School and a BFA with Honors at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Her current projects include a follow-up to “Machine Learning and Notions of the Image”, entitled Algorithm, Image, Art, and new artistic and theoretical work on the epistemic grounding of visual media.




PhD, Digital Design, IT-University of Copenhagen
Supervisors: Laura Beloff & Sebastian Risi
Internally-Funded Fellowship
Machine Learning & Notions of the Image

Research Stay Abroad, Goldsmiths University of London
Supervisor: Luciana Parisi

MA, Communication, with Distinction, The European Graduate School, Saas-Fee
Supervisor: Wolfgang Schirmacher
“The Aesthetic Imaginary”

BFA with Honours, School of the Art Institute of Chicago
Merit-Based Tuition Grants
SAIC Graduation Fellowship

Solo Exhibitions

2021   Cryptographics, ONB Labs, Vienna
2019   image machine / machine image, Galerie Gilla Lörcher, Berlin
2015   The Typesetter’s Ruminations, Galerie Gilla Lörcher, Berlin
2015   Artifacts, Palais des Beaux Arts, Vienna
2013   Stepping into the Impossible, Galerie Gilla Lörcher, Berlin
2009   It Happens that the Stage Sets Break Down, LivingRoom Gallery, Chicago
2008   Natural Deviations, Phaiz, Chicago

Selected Group Exhibitions

2022   Becoming Geological, V2_, Rotterdam
2022   Espaço/Programa, Cerveira Art Biennial Foundation, Cerveira
2021   Seasonal.Digital, Galerie Gilla Lörcher, Berlin
2020   Small Wonders, Galerie Gilla Lörcher, Berlin
2020   Reprogramming Earth, NeMe, Limassol
2019   Perpetual Interpreter, LOKALE, Copenhagen
2019   SCREENSHOTS, Galleri Image, Aarhus
2018   Ubiquitous Futures, CATCH, Helsingør
2018   machines will watch us die, The Holden Gallery, Manchester
2017   A New We, Kunsthall Trondheim
2016   Hybrid Matters, Nikolaj Kunsthal, Copenhagen
2015   TRANSART, Dome of Visions, Copenhagen
2015   Forårsudstillingen, Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Copenhagen
2014   Lovelace, C4 Projects, Copenhagen
2014   Obsessive Sensing, LEAP, Berlin
2014   Interactor, Victoria Art Center, Bucharest
2014   transmediale: Afterglow, HKW, Berlin
2014   The Inhabited Interface, bb15, Linz
2013   Pitch Drop, Science Friction, Copenhagen
2013   Going Dark, LEAP, Berlin
2013   XV Call, Luis Adelantado, Valencia
2012   Crash of Tests, ping12 documentation, Kassel
2012   Crash of Tests, Westwerk, Hamburg
2012   Crash of Tests, Walden Kunstausstellungen, Berlin
2012   MONO//TON//POLY//CHROM, Freies Museum Berlin
2011   YOLK, Panke, Berlin
2010 Body Implement, SoundsuitShop, Chicago
2010   Mischief Night, Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago
2009   The Yield, Heaven Gallery, Chicago
2009   70 Days for 70 Years, Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago
2007   Objects, Actions, Participation, Messhall, Chicago

Gallery Representation

since 2013   Galerie Gilla Lörcher Contemporary Art

Awards & Funding

2021   Shortlisted for the German Informatics Society AI Newcomer Award in Art
2017-2020   Internally-funded PhD Fellowship, IT-University of Copenhagen
2017   Statens Kunstfond Production Grant
2017   Art & Technology Project Support, Arts Council Norway
2017   Nordic Culture Point Mobility Funding
2017   Kulturhavn 365 Project Support
2017   Statens Kunstfond Open Residency Pool Grant
2017   Statens Kunstfond Arbejdslegat
2016   Statens Kunstfond Open Residency Pool Grant
2016   Statens Kunstfond Production Grant
2015   Statens Kunstfond Arbejdslegat
2008   SAIC Graduation Fellowship
2007   Ike and Florence Sewell Scholarship
2004-2008   SAIC Merit-Based Tuition Grants


2021   ONB Labs Web Residency, Austrian National Library, Vienna
2017   “Nocturne”, Ayatana Biophilia Artists’ Research Programme, Ottawa
2016   rural_scapes Laboratory in Residence, São José do Barreiro
2014   transmediale Vilém Flusser Residency for Artistic Research, Universität der Künste Berlin
2013   Burning Athens Residency for Art and Critical Theory, Athens
2009   Harold Arts Residency, Chesterfield, Ohio


2022/6/24   Deconstructing Representatio, AI Infrastructures for Civil Society and the Arts, Hartware MedienKunstVerein (HMKV) Dortmund
2019/10/18   The Image After Algorithmic Media, Problematizing Algorithms: Methods and Approaches, Keynote and panel  discussion, Nordic Perspectives on Algorithms Workshop, IT-University of Copenhagen
2017/12/14  Seeing with Machine, VL-Group Presentation, IT-University of Copenhagen

Talks & Lectures

2022/11/17   “Sharing a Point of View with the Inanimate”, Operational Media Symposium, University of Oslo
2022/6/22   “Mediation and Environment”, ICLI, Lusófona University, Lisbon
2022/6/16   “Analysis Paralysis and a Bag of Bad Ideas”, AMRO, AFO, Linz
2022/4/23   “Art Involving Computation vs. Computational Art”, Espaço/Programa, Cerveira Art Biennial Foundation
2021/9/9   “After Novelty”, Academy of Thoughts: Critical Data at the Ars Electronica Festival, Interface Cultures, University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz
2021/3/24   “”Machine Learning & the Image: History, Theory & Practice”, Luca School of Arts, Brussels
2021/1/29   “Machine Learning and Notions of the Image”, Hybrid Intelligentia in Art and Science, Hybrid Lab Network
2020/11/27   “Machine Learning & Notions of the Image”, Machine Image Workshop, Aarhus University
2020/11/12   “Machine Learning & Notions of the Image”, University of Porto
2019/11/28   “Evidencing Reality Through Algorithmic Media”, Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendezvous (LASER) Talks, University of Porto
2019/11/27   “Seeing with Machines: The Image After Algorithmic Media”, University of Porto2019/10/19   “Deconstructing Representation, Nordic Perspectives on Algorithms Workshop, IT-University of Copenhagen
2019/6/17   “How Can We Trust Our Images?”, Trust in the IoT, ARoS Kunstmuseum, Aarhus
2019/3/8   “The Expanded Image”, SCREENSHOTS, Kunsthal Aarhus
2019/2/1   “The image is a machine”, Machine Feeling, transmediale, Berlin
2019/1/25   “the image is a machine”, Galerie Gilla Lörcher, Berlin
2018/10/30  “Seeing with Machines”, MCCS PhD Colloquium, Goldsmiths, University of London
2018/4/30  “IT Star Lecture”, IT-University of Copenhagen
2014/2/1   “Molten Media”, transmediale, HKW, Berlin
2013/7/18   “The Tyranny of the Free, Political Speeches Series at Kunsthalle Athena, Athens
2013/2/20   “Immaterial Transformation: Maps Leading Nowhere and Everywhere”, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Conference Paper Presentations

2022/12/8   “Diagrammatic Visualisation”, Templates, 4S/ESOCITE, Cholula
2022/7/8   “Cryptographics”, xCoAx, University of Coimbra
2020/11/20    “Spectral & Procedural Creativity: A Perspective from Computational Art”, Artificial Creativity Virtual Conference, Malmö University
2020/11/7  “Machine Learning & the Mediating Tendencies of the Image”, Dark Eden, Transdisciplinary Imaging Conference, Sydney
2019/8/21   “Soundwalking & Algorithmic Listening”, RE:SOUND, Media Art Histories, Aalborg University
2019/6/20   “Net Art & the Performance of Images”, the web that was, RESAW, Amsterdam
2019/6/5  “Aesthetics of Uncertainty”, International conference on Computation, Communication, Aesthetics & X (xCoAx), Milan
2018/6/26   “Seeing with Machines: Decipherability and Obfuscation in Adversarial Images”, International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA), Durban
2018/5/15   “The Limits of Algorithmic Perception”, EVA, Aalborg University, Copenhagen
2018/4/26   “Seeing with Machines: An Investigation into Hybrid Agency”, Radical Relevances, Aalto University Espoo
2015/12/11   “Bioinformatic Poetry”, Aesthetics, Ethics and Biopolitics of the Posthuman Conference, Aarhus University
2013/6/7   “Critical Encounters with Art & Economics”, Pedagogies of Disaster, Continent. Conference, National Historical Museum, Tirana
2011/5/11   “Communal Bodies”, Internationnal Conference of the Arts in Society, Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences & Humanities

Participation in Debates & Colloquia

2022/7/7   Moderator, Keynote by Winnie Soon, Coding Otherwise for SOFTer Futures, xCoAx
2022/6/22  Panelist, Mediation and Environment, International Conference on Live Interfaces (ICLI), Lusofona University, Lisbon
2022/6/14   Presentor, Art Intelligence, ISEA, Barcelona
2021/9/6   Presentor, Resilience in the New Real Development Workshop 2, University of Edinburgh
2021/8/29   Presentor, Resilience in the New Real Development Workshop 1, University of Edinburgh
2021/9/9   Participant, Roundtable on Critical Data, University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz
2021/7/15   Moderator, Keynote by Špela Petrič, On The Vegetariat In Times Of Surveillance Societies, xCoAx
2021/6/17   Moderator, Keynote by Anna Ridler, Blooms and Bubbles: Tulips, Blockchain and Manias, Creativity Talks, University of Porto
2019/8/19   Session Chair, Sound in the Cross-section of Biological and Technological, Media Art Histories, Aalborg University
2018/5/17   Chair, Algorithms and Art Track Session 4, EVA Copenhagen, Aalborg University
2018/5/16   Chair, Algorithms and Art Track Session 3, EVA Copenhagen, Aalborg University


2021/2/23  Do Androids Dream of Electric Images?, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
2021/2/16   Do Androids Dream of Electric Images?, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
2021/2/9  Do Androids Dream of Electric Images?, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
2021/2/2  Do Androids Dream of Electric Images?, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
2017/11/1    Break-IT Arduino Workshop, IT-University of Copenhagen
2017/8/17   Hydrofeminism: Becoming a Body of Water, Kulturhavn 365, Copenhagen
2017/4/20  Entering into Relation with an Object: Vibrant Matter, C4 Projects, Copenhagen
2016/10/30   Mapping the Wasp, Rural Scapes, São José do Barreiro, Brazil
2016/10/29   Mapping the Wasp, Rural Scapes, São José do Barreiro, Brazil
2016/10/23   Mapping the Wasp, Rural Scapes, São José do Barreiro, Brazil
2016/10/16   Mapping the Wasp, Rural Scapes, São José do Barreiro, Brazil
2016/10/9   Mapping the Wasp, Rural Scapes, São José do Barreiro, Brazil
2016/9/9  Entering into Relation with an Object: Hyperobjects, Age of Aquarius, Copenhagen
2016/5/12   Entering into Relation with an Object: Umwelt, Goldsmiths, University of London
2016/3/17   Entering into Relation with an Object: I Eat an Apple, NLH Space, Copenhagen
2016/2/18   Entering into Relation with an Object: Umwelt, NLH Space, Copenhagen
2014/7/12   Protogaea, Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
2014/6/10   Molten Media, Universität der Künste Berlin

Committee Work

2022   Jury, Art and Computation Retreat, Gesellschaft für Informatik
2018–present   xCoAx Scientific Committee
2020   Leonardo Journal Peer Review Panel
2019   IT-University of Copenhagen Women in Research Working Group
2019   Internet Moon Gallery Exhibition Jury
2018   Organising Committee, ITU Digital Design Summer Seminar
2018   Organising Committee, EVA Copenhagen Conference & PhD Course
2018   IT-University of Copenhagen PhD Council


2012/10/6   Untitled [Social Isolation], Galerie Toolbox, Berlin
2012/9/12   On Sensitivity, Plants & Noise, Galerie Toolbox, Berlin
2012/9/5   On Noise & Sensitivity, Ping12 Dokumentation, Kassel
2012/8/21   On Noise & Sensitivity, Walden Kunstausstellungen, Berlin
2010/10/20   Spectacle du Société du Spectacle, Hyde Park Art Center, Chicago
2008/1/20–25   Wind-Up: Walking the Warp, with Anne Wilson, Rhona Hoffmann Gallery, Chicago

Curatorial Projects

2017   Entering into Relation with an Object: An Intimate Connection Vol. 2, C4 Projects, Copenhagen, DK
2015   Maps of the Imaginary, Playground for Open Research, Copenhagen, DK
2014   Analogic Bodies, Husets Biograf, Copenhagen, DK
2014   Cosmic Death, Walden Kunstausstellungen, Berlin, DE
2012   MONO//TON//POLY//CHROM, Freies Museum Berlin, DE



Lee, Rosemary. Algorithm, Image, Art. (forthcoming)

Lee, Rosemary. “Machine Learning and Notions of the Image”. IT-University of Copenhagen, 2021. Machine_Learning_and_Notions_of_the_Image

Lee, Rosemary. Molten Media. Berlin: transmediale, Vilém Flusser Archive, 2014.

Book Chapters

Lee, Rosemary. “Absorption, Saturation, Toxicity, Elimination” In Becoming Geological. Rotterdam: V2_ Publishing, 2022.

Lee, Rosemary. “Art Involving Computation vs. Computational Art” In Espaço/Programa, 41–47. Cerveira: Fundação Bienal de Arte de Cerveira, 2022.

Lee, Rosemary. “The Tangential Realism of @PepitoTheCat” In Book of X, 79–89. Porto: Conference on Computation, Communication, Aesthetics and X, 2022.

Lee, Rosemary. “proces==structure”. In The Computer as Seen in the End of the Human Age, edited by Olle Essvik. Göteborg: Rojal Förlag, 2022.

Lee, Rosemary. “Anna Ridler, Mosaic Virus”. In Kinetismus: 100 Years of Electricity in Art, 196. Kunsthalle Praha. Berlin: Hatje Cantz, 2022.

Lee, Rosemary. “Resilience as a Critical Approach to Technology” In Rewilding Culture, edited by Erich Berger, Ewen Chardronnet, Tina Dolinšek, and Uroš Veber, 72–82. Ljubljana: Zavod Projekt Atol, 2021.

Peer Reviewed Publications in Academic Journals

Carvalhais, Miguel, and Rosemary Lee. “Spectral and Procedural, a Perspective on Artificial Creativity through Computational Art”. Transformations: Journal of Media, Culture and Technology, 36.

Lee, Rosemary. “Machine Learning and the Mediating Tendencies of the Image”. In Dark Eden Transdisciplinary Imaging Conference 2020. figshare, November 2021.

Carvalhais, Miguel, and Rosemary Lee. “Soundwalking and Algorithmic Listening”. In Proceedings of RE:SOUND 2019 – 8th International Conference on Media Art, Science, and Technology. Aalborg, Denmark, 51–56. Electronic Workshops in Computing, 2019.

Lee, Rosemary. “Uncertainties in the Algorithmic Image”. Journal of Science, Technology and the Arts, 11 no. 2 (May 2019): 36–40.

Lee, Rosemary. “The Image Is a Machine.”  A Peer-Reviewed Newspaper, A Peer-Reviewed Journal About (APRJA), Machine Feeling, Aarhus University 8 (2019): 20- 21.

Lee, Rosemary. “The Limits of Algorithmic Perception: Technological Umwelt”. In Proceedings of EVA Copenhagen 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark, Electronic Workshops in Computing, 44 (2018): 6.

Lee, Rosemary. “Crystallisation as a Research Process”. Journal for Research Cultures, Epistemic Practices in Arts and Technology, 1 no. 1 (December 2015): 7.

Lee, Rosemary. “The Sand Timer.” Continent, 4 no. 2 (2015): 67–70.

Lee, Rosemary. “Interiority Exteriority and Techno Clubs.” Flusser Studies, 17 (June 2014).

Lee, Rosemary. “Communal Bodies.” The International Journal of the Arts in Society: Annual Review 6, Common Ground Publishing, 2011, 265–70.

Peer-Reviewed Publications in Conference Proceedings

Lee, Rosemary. “Cryptographics”. In xCoAx 2022 Proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Computation, Communication, Aesthetics & X, 312–317. 2022.

Lee, Rosemary. “Aesthetics of Uncertainty”. In Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Computation, Communication, Aesthetics and X, 256–62, 2019.

Lee, Rosemary. “Seeing with Machines: Decipherability and Obfuscation in Adversarial Images”. In ISEA 2018 Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Electronic Art, Durban, 2018, 321–24. with_Machines_Decipherability_and_Obfuscation_in_Adversarial_Images

Interviews & Other Publications

Lee, Rosemary. “Image Machinery”. The Grey Box, In a World of Machines, 1 no. 1 (October 2019): 3.

Costantin, Patrizia. “In Conversation with Rosemary Lee and Martin Howse” In Machines will watch us die. Manchester: Manchester School of Art, The Holden Gallery, 2018. pp. 8–10. Interview.

Lee, Rosemary, and Manuel Minch. “Art on the Moon?” Continent, 7 no. 1 (2018): 82–85. Interview.

Wacherhausen, Uffe, and Rene Georg. “HYBRID MATTERS”. Nikolaj Kunsthal. 2016. Video interview.

Lee, Rosemary. In Three Questions on Media Criticality. Basel: Critical Media Lab Basel. 2015.

Gansing, Kristoffer. “Museum walk and discussion: Protogaea”. transmediale.  2014. Video interview.

O’Heilly, David, and Gabin Ito. Rosemary Lee Anmerkung. Tokyo: BCCKS. 2014.!/spread:1

Mickel, Fridey. “A Chat with Rosemary Lee.” Exberliner. 2013. Interview.

Exhibition Catalogues & Art Publications

Lee, Rosemary, and Miriam Wistreich. “Hydrofeminism: Becoming a Body of Water”. In . Copenhagen: Kulturhavn 365. 2018. pp. 106–107.

Lee, Rosemary. “Sonic Cannibal” & “On Sensitivity, Plants & Noise”. In TRANSART – en Forsamling på Tværs af Arter. Copenhagen: Laboratory for Aesthetics and Ecology. 2015. pp. 18–19.

Lee, Rosemary, and Jens Jørgensen. “Mining the Arbitrary”. In Charlottenborg Forårsudstilling 2015. Copenhagen: Charlottenborg Fonden. 2015. p. 44.
ISBN: 978-87-991901-4-0

Lee, Rosemary. (Unitlted). In The Other Face of the Frappé, edited by Pietro Bonfanti. Athens: Pietro Bonfanti. 2014. Zine. pp. 44–51.

Lee, Rosemary. Stepping Into the Impossible. Berlin: Galerie Gilla Lörcher. 2013.

Lee, Rosemary. In Zupančič, Alenka. Sobre la Comedia: un Extraño en Casa. México D.F: Paradiso Editores. 2012. Cover image.

Duarte, Carla, Annie Egleson, Surabhi Ghosh, Jongock Kim, Rosemary Lee, Christie Matson, Sarah Moore, Jeroen Nelemans, Sara Rabinowitz, Rana Siegel, Mike Slattery, and Anne Wilson. “Wind-Up: Walking the Warp”. In Hemmings, Jessica. Warp & Weft: Woven Textiles in Fashion, Art and Interiors. London/Berlin/New York/Sydney: Bloomsbury. 2012. pp. 127–129.


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